... 2001, President George W. Bush issued a Military Order on Detention, Treatment, and Trial of Certain Non-Citizens in the War Against Terrorism. Announcing a plan to detain captives in the "war on terror" that Bush'd declared in the wake of the terrorist attacks on September 11 of that year, the Order asserted the power "to ... detai[n], and, when tried, to ... tr[y] for violations of the laws of war and other applicable laws by military tribunals" any person whom "there is reason to believe":
(i) is or was a member of the organization known as al Qaida;
(ii) has engaged in, aided or abetted, or conspired to commit, acts of international terrorism, or acts in preparation therefor, that have caused, threaten to cause, or have as their aim to cause, injury to or adverse effects on the United States, its citizens, national security, foreign policy, or economy; or
(iii) has knowingly harbored one or more [such] individuals ....
Executive detention at home and abroad of persons who came to be called "enemy combatants" -- among them 2 U.S. citizens, José Padilla and Yaser Esam Hamdi, as well as many noncitizens -- soon followed. The Supreme Court invalidated aspects of that policy in its 2004 decisions in Rasul v. Bush and Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, and in its 2006 decision in Hamdan v. Rumsfeld. It is due again to consider detention, in Boumediene v. Bush, on December 5, 2007.