'Thousands would be a conservative estimate.'
-- Dr. Wendy Lower (below right), on the findings of her research respecting the number of women who took some part in genocide and other crimes of the Nazi era. The New York Times article that carries the quote further notes the significance of her addition of a "gender perspective" to the tragedy of the Holocaust. Historian Lower allows that no more than 2% of "perpetrators" were women. (credit for above-left photo from 1947 trial of Auschwitz-Birkenau guard Maria Mandel) But she adds that many other women aided Nazi efforts indirectly; for instance, by hosting parties for men who killed. (Consider too this prior IntLawGrrls post.) The reality that some women were agents of crime is one we 'Grrls have discussed a number of times, in relation not only to postwar accountability at Nuremberg, but also to contemporary tribunals such as the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.